Category Archives: General Writing

How to Create a College Freshman Resume in Less Than an Hour

A lot of students, when entering a college, face a need to create a resume that can be requested both on campus and when applying for a job. How can a student create such a resume and keep it as modern and suitable as possible? We have gathered the best tips for your freshman resume, so don’t waste your time and let’s dive into this topic.

How to make a resume as a college freshman, and do you need one?

You never know when a new opportunity arises, so college freshman resume is better to be prepared beforehand in order to use it for:

Basically, this is the document that represents your strengths, sums up your accomplishments, and tells about your experience. Consider creating such a resume even if it seems like you don’t need it right now. For example, you might need a college freshman resume for an internship, and without a complete document on your hands, you might be too late to fill the vacant position. So, don’t miss your chance! Let’s create a freshman college student resume together.

1. Contact Information Block

Contact information is one of the most important parts of your resume. Make sure to update this block of your resume if something changes so as not to miss your opportunity because of the old phone number.

What information to include:

  • Your current address (campus, rented apartment, house)
  • Your phone number
  • Your email address

Make sure to create and use an email address which looks professional. Use your full name instead of nicknames for your email address name. Nicknames are more preferable for informal communication with your friends.

2. Your Objective

When creating a college student resume, provide an objective. This extra touch will make your resume look more polished. Your college freshman resume objective or in other words a summary should be brief and laconic (usually cut down to one sentence) to show your intentions and goals clearly.

Example:

To get into the university that will provide me with the exceptional knowledge of financial management so I will be able to develop a successful career.

3. Education Block

Commonly this block goes before achievements and work experience blocks. Here, you should provide information about your education, such as academic level, school, GPA, major, expected date of graduation from college, etc. You can also mention relevant coursework as a separated or included block with information about the subjects that you are currently studying or studied in the past.

Don’t forget to mention your honors or specific projects that showcase your skills.

Example:

The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH.

The Bachelor of Arts in Urban Studies

Graduation expected May 2023

The Wooster High School, Wooster, OH. (High school information should be removed from your resume when starting your sophomore year).

Awards: National Merit Scholar

GPA: 4.0/4.2

Graduated May 2019

4. Employment Experience Block

When you are a freshman, typically there is not much information that you can put in your resume. So, all the relevant experience will be suitable.

How to write a resume with little experience?

It’s hard to write a lot in this block when creating a resume for college freshman as usually there are not many jobs for those who under 18 available. But you can include all of your part-time jobs and volunteering projects that you have participated in. Don’t forget to mention what your duties were or what goals you have achieved while working. Even your experience as a teenage babysitter can be put in here if presented as a job that taught you how to be responsible and attentive.

A tip: if you feel that this block seems too poor or irrelevant, you can combine two blocks together – Employment and Relevant Projects to put more info in here.

Example:

Sales Seasonal Associate (June 2018 — July 2019)

Bath & Body Works Store, Wooster, OH.

  • Provided excellent customer service and helped customers to choose the most suitable products.
  • Operated the cash register.

5. Activities and Honors

If you can add something more about your education, it’s great. Use this chance to tell about sports, music, and art events you participated and your achievements in the spheres besides the school program. If you took on a leadership role, it’s a great chance to put this information too so to emphasize your ability to work in a team and organize the working process inside the group.

It’s also a great place to mention your honors or club membership.

Example:

The Wooster High School, Wooster, OH.

  • National Honor Society, Secretary.
  • Tennis team (January 2017- May 2019). Team captain (September 2018 – May 2019).

6. Skills

To let your prospective employer or any other person know about what responsibilities will match your abilities, list all of them if the are relevant skills. Such a list can be very diverse depending on the vacancy that you are aiming for, competition, etc. However, computer skills and foreign languages levels can be met pretty much in every resume.

Example:

Computer: Proficient in Microsoft Word, Excel, and Access.

Languages: Basic Italian and Spanish

Personal: Excellent interpersonal communication skills.

Other: Experience in social media promotion (Instagram, Facebook).

Templates to Use

If you are not sure about the format of your resume, you can use templates which provide excellent guidelines and help you to structure your resume properly. Such templates can be found on platforms like:

Choose the one that will be the most suitable for you. Pay attention to the readability of your resume and its structure.

Basic Rules to Follow When Creating a Resume for College Freshman

How to write a resume as a college freshman without mistakes? Just follow these simple rules:

  1. Keep your resume up to one page.
  2. Break your resume into blocks for easier reading.
  3. Use bold font for headings and bullet points for lists.
  4. Use separate email address created specifically for professional purpose.
  5. Update your resume at least once a year or more if you need to update any information in it.
  6. If you need to send your resume, send it in a .pdf format instead of .docx or .txt.
  7. Print your resume when you go to interviews.
  8. Use casual language and avoid complicated wording.
  9. Remember that your font size should be different for various components of your resume: bullet points – 10pt, contact info – 12pt, your name – at least 16pt.
  10. Avoid long paragraphs.
  11. Proofread and edit your resume or ask someone to do that for you. You can also ask a career counselor or any other professional to look through your resume and give you an opinion on it.
  12. Avoid lying in your resume. If there are no jobs to list, it’s better to create a resume with no work experience to avoid embarrassment when confronted lying.

So, these are the basic tips that you should follow when creating your resume. Keep in mind that sometimes you might be given specific requirements to your resume, so you will have to tailor according to the vacancy or the contest that you want to participate in. Also, you will need to write a compelling cover letter as an addition to your CV.

We hope you will find our tips useful. Good luck with your resume!

How to Write a Monologue Fast and Easily

a man lies on the grass writing in the notebook

If you struggle with your monologue assignment or want to improve the quality of your papers of this type, then this article is definitely for you. We have gathered the best tips and pieces of advice for students who have to write a monologue.

What Is a Monologue?

First, let’s find out the basics of this type of paper. What is a monologue? A monologue is a solo speech of a character that is performed on a particular event, experience, etc. It allows us to get a better understanding of a character’s feelings and thoughts. In literature, dramatic monologues are spoken out loud or are represented in the form of the inner monologue of a character to himself.

The Key Features of a Monologue

The majority of the character monologues share key characteristics. For example:

  • A monologue can be written in rhyme or without it as it can be used both in poetry and in prose.
  • A monologue is a speech of one character only.
  • A monologue can be represented in the form of a speech to an audience or an inner speech as a representation of a character’s thoughts.
  • A monologue is used to represent the opinion or experience of the character.
  • A monologue is written in the first person from the perspective of the character.
  • A monologue has to combine past and present actions and reveal the correlation between them.

These are the basics that you need to consider when writing a monologue. Make sure to fill the monologue with emotions as it is the most important part of the good monologue.

Writing a Monologue

Many students get confused when they are assigned to write a monologue and try to find the answer to the question “How to write a monologue essay?” Sometimes such an assignment can be given when studying a particular piece of literature in order to get a better understanding of the character and his or her motives, aspirations, etc.

If it is the case, students are given a situation when a character has to perform a monologue. In other cases, students are free to choose the character and the circumstances that accompany the monologue.

Monologue writing always helps to develop good writing skills and perform a deeper analysis of the literature work. If you would like to improve your writing skills, you might be interested in our article that contains some tips for you.

Step 1. The Character Choice

If you got an assignment to write a monologue, start with thinking about what your topic will be. If your teacher gave you specific guidelines on the character that you need to speak for or a particular scene that you need to incorporate your monologue in, then you have a half of the task done. If not, think of the character who faces a difficult emotional situation. For example, Elizabeth Bennet from Pride and Prejudice or the eponymous hero of the novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte.

Write down the notes about the events that precede the monologue and form the emotional state that your character is in. For example, if your character witnessed the murder or was participating in a crime, etc. This will help you to understand what you should write about and how your character should feel at the moment. This will also help you not to forget to mention these events if needed.

Step 2. Writing an Outline

As any other writing assignment, a monologue requires an outline. By thinking through the structure of your future piece, you improve the readability and the logical flow of it.

The majority of monologues share the same structure that consists of the beginning, the middle and the ending parts. Each of these parts has transitioning sentences that help to blend everything together into the story with a natural, logical flow and idea evaluation.

It’s great if your monologue has its climax – the point of the most intense emotion or a decisive action that is framed into the story. You might put the climax of your monologue in any part of it:

  • It might be placed at the beginning of your monologue as the catchy paragraphs that draws attention and helps to set the tone of the monologue.
  • In the middle – with the emotional intensity that grows from the beginning, reaches the climax and then goes down at the end of the monologue.
  • At the end of the monologue – as the intriguing closure.

So, make an outline that would organize the ideas which you want to evaluate and consider the part of your monologue that is the most suitable for the climax of your story.

Step 3. Drafting

After your outline is ready, you can start working on your draft. Keep in mind that you need to follow the character’s manner of speaking and make a monologue close to the individuality of the speaker.

Focus your monologue on a particular point of view and build a monologue starting with the notes that you have prepared that go straight to the point and the main idea of your monologue. Later, you can add details and move the parts of your monologue if needed.

A tip:

If you struggle with a monologue concept, try the following exercise. Speak for one minute straight without pause. Just say what comes to your mind. Try it for one more minute but this time try to tell a story instead of random sentences. Incorporate emotions and thoughts on any subject. Here you go, you have just performed a monologue that might help you to get a few monologue story ideas.

Add twist and turns to your monologue to make it more alive and compelling to keep the readers’ attention through the whole piece. If you want to add elements of surprise, it’s better to place them at the beginning of the new paragraph.

Step 4. Editing

Once your draft is ready, proofread the whole piece and try to analyze if your monologue fits the character and the scene or circumstances in which it takes place. You can add quotes that might fit the monologue or refer to the particular events if they are significant for the character at a specific moment.

These are the main steps of monologue writing. If you need some help with other types of assignment writing, we have a few pieces of advice on writing an autobiographical essay and a critical response essay.

 

8 Awe-Inspiring Writing Strategies Famous Writers Used

a man typing on typewriter keyboard

Creating a decent piece is not an easy thing to do. Whether you need to write an essay, a review, a short story or a blog post, you might face the same difficulties as other professional writers do. So, we have prepared some useful tips from the best authors that will help you to improve your writing skills, beat writer’s block and increase your productivity.

Here are 8 strategies for developing writing skills from the best and the most productive authors in the world.

#1 – A “Daily Writing” Strategy of Steven King

Steven KingPhoto credit: Evan Agostini

If you don’t know who Steven King is, then you probably live under the rock. Being the king of the horror genre and one of the most productive writers of the 20-21 centuries, Steven King is glad to tell the story of his writing career. Moreover, he gives useful pieces of advice in his book On Writing. One of the most significant lessons from him is his strategy of daily writing.

A “Daily writing” strategy is all about constant practicing. King says that when you start your project, you shouldn’t stop for a single day until you are satisfied with your draft. Only by writing every single day, you can keep your skills strong enough. As writing skills can be trained like muscles, you have to keep them toned up.

Try to write at least one small piece a day. It doesn’t matter what it would be – a blog post, a letter to your girlfriend, etc. If you keep practicing every day, you will get used to writing and following your creative plan.

#2 – A “Cocoon” Strategy of Roald Dahl

Roald DahlSource: The Times

Dahl was commonly described by his friends as an “odd fellow.” While he was writing, he was sitting in his armchair with his legs wrapped in a sleeping bag. He could stay in this position all night long.

The setting around you is very important, so finding the most comfortable place and position is key to get your imagination free and stay productive for a long time. Some people love working while laying in bed, for others it’s crucial to have fully prepared stationary.

Not only Dahl was weird about his writing habits. For example, Gertrude Stein was writing only in the driver’s seat of her Ford and Hemingway wrote all his works while standing.

You should also find a special place or atmosphere which will awake your talent. If you want to stay more focused while studying or working, check out our article about the art of concentration.

#3 – A “Small Steps” Strategy of Graham Greene

Graham GreenePhoto credit: Yousuf Karsh

“In the old days, at the beginning of a book, I’d set myself 500 words a day, but now I’d put the mark to about 300 words.” Graham Greene

This writing strategy for struggling writers is all about the goals and methods of achieving them. Of course, you could set a plan of writing just as fast as Steven King (King writes about 10 pages or 2,000 words per day), but you would quickly realize that this tactic leads to exhaustion of your imagination.

Take slow steps, and establish manageable goals for each day of writing – you will see that the quality of your writing is much better when you’re not in haste.

#4 – A “Last Line” Strategy of Katherine Anne Porter

Katherine Anne PorterSource: Hulton Archive

A lot of writers start working on their pieces as soon as a plot idea hits them. But sometimes it leads to a block when one can’t figure out how to end a story. In order to avoid such a situation, Porter did other way round – she wrote the ending first. When she had an idea for her another piece, she wrote the last line and after that the last page of her piece. Only then she began working on the whole plot.

It’s a brilliant tip for every piece of writing, not only for stories and novels. When you start working on your essay, the first thing you should do is to formulate your thesis – a quick summary of your paper’s purpose. So, basically, you write your essay starting from the end of it.

This is one of the best writing strategies for students who are working on their papers and need help with formulating a thesis statement.

When you know how your piece will end up and what the whole plot leads to, you can be more comfortable with writing the rest.

#5 – A “Don’t Look at It Again” Strategy of Neil Gaiman

Neil GaimanPhoto credit: Rich Polk

It’s hard to fight the temptation of revising your written piece before it is finished. But Neil Gaiman advises the opposite method – writing till the end without looking at your work.

Don’t come back to recite the pieces that you have already written the previous day – write what comes to your mind. And when you are finished, compile all of the parts and edit the whole thing. You might find some pieces surprising as you have already forgotten about what their content is.

Moreover, Gaiman suggests looking the piece through after some time:

The best advice I can give on [revision] is, once it’s done, to put it away until you can read it with new eyes. Finish the short story, print it out, then put it in a drawer and write other things. When you’re ready, pick it up and read it as if you’ve never read it before. If there are things you aren’t satisfied with as a reader, go in and fix them as a writer: that’s revision.

#6 – A “Wait for It” Strategy of Hilary Mantel

Hilary MantelSource: The Daily Beast

Sometimes you get stuck. Instead of sitting with your piece in front of you, do something else. Draw, clean, listen to music or go to sleep. Sometimes you just need to take a little break and wait for a good thought to come.

She also recommends avoiding chatting or going to the party in this situation, as “someone’s words will pour in where your lost words should be.” Many students also find this advice one of the most useful among all of the writing techniques and strategies. And while you are waiting for your muse, check out our tips on essay writing.

#7 – A “ Writing Ritual” Strategy of Toni Morrison

Toni MorrisonPhoto credit: Timothy Greenfield-Sander

As we talked about the atmosphere and habits of writers, there are also some strange rituals that could be helpful to anyone who wants to get used to writing. Morrison claims that she didn’t realize it before one conversation with another author in which they talked about the things they do before writing. Morrison observed that she always got up before the dawn, made herself a cup of coffee and watched a sunrise.

You might also have some ritual that helps you to set up the right mood for work. Pay attention to the things you usually do before writing or establish new traditions.

#8 – A “Question” Strategy of Mary Lee Settle

Mary Lee SettleSource: AZ Quotes

A National Book Award-winner Mary Lee Settle said that she always started with a question and then tried to answer it. This way you will never run out of ideas as you can ask yourself about anything in the world and then evaluate your thought. For example, “What if I wake up in another universe?” “What if Shakespeare lived in our time?” “What if the gravity disappeared for a second?” etc.

Wrapping up

Students don’t have to be professional writers, but they can find the authors’ experience helpful as they commonly face the same difficulties. So, we hope that you have found our list of writing strategies that authors use helpful for your studying routine. Try out these tips to find ones that work for you.

Prepare a Persuasive Speech in 5 Easy Steps

Prepare a speech in 5 stepsTalking comes naturally to us and we don’t even give our conversations the second thought. But when faced with the prospect of speaking in front of the audience, this seems a burden. By far, the best way to learn how to write persuasive speeches is to read the great ones. But if you are looking for some quick tips, here are a few steps to follow.

1. Learn about a Topic

A major part of the difficulty about writing a persuasive speech is choosing a topic and learning about it. You need to know as much as possible about the subject you need to speak on. Spend some time doing a research and learn all the sides of the issue. You may read academic books in a library or find relevant articles online but make sure to use only reliable sources. To find out what other people think about a topic, use radio talks or editorials, but don’t rely on them as your only source of information as they may be biased.

2. Define Your Goal

You have to understand what you need to achieve with your speech. Do you want to present your own opinion on the issue? Make a sale? Persuade your audience to vote? Or perform some other action? Once you define what you expect from the audience, you’ll be able to easily craft your message. It is also important to understand the views and knowledge of your audience about a topic. People who know little about the subject need some background information and simpler language. However, the experts on the topic may find this kind of speech boring.

3. Write a Strong Opening

Before you can start persuading your audience, you have to attract their attention. A strong and effective opening has the following elements:

  • An attention grabber – this can be a little startling or dramatic statement that will get your audience’s attention instantly.
  • A link to the audience – you need to emphasize that you have something in common with the audience.
  • Your goal – explain what you hope the speech will accomplish.
  • A road map – present the main points of your speech.

4. Offer Persuasive Evidence

The main body of your speech should include several convincing reasons to support your point of view. Arrange these points logically. Make sure to use credible sources from your research to back up these points. You may use the real life examples that the audience can relate to. Even the argument based on facts and logic should relate to the audience’s interests and lives.

5. Conclude with a Call to Action

The conclusion of your speech should remind your audience of what you have told them. But don’t just restate your point of view, instead, use this as a chance to present a clear call to action. Use concise and strong sentences that elicit confidence. You don’t want to sound as passive or timid. Don’t be afraid to use some humor in your speech. It will connect you to the audience and make your topic easier to hear about.

Write like you talk and remember that practice makes perfect!

Writing an Analytical Essay: The Most Useful Hints

How to write an analytical essayOne of the most frequently assigned essays in English is an analytical essay. In can be a challenging task to complete, but mastering its technique is essential as most academic assignments have a strong requirement to write with an analytical focus.

So, what is an analytical essay?

The key to understanding the nature of this type of essay is a word “analyze.” Yes, your main task is to present a deep and well-structured evaluation of the topic or problem. An analytical essay is not a summary of the work. If you find yourself paraphrasing the information or simply retelling the story, you are not writing an analytical essay.

The Most Useful Writing Tips and Tricks

1. If you may choose a topic, investigate the subject that inspires or fascinates you. You don’t have to fully understand that, but if you are really interested, you will be more motivated to figure out the unknown things.

2. Your essay should follow the requirements. A lot of students receive the low grades because they fail to read the instructions attentively.

3. Make sure your essay has an arguable thesis at the end of your introduction, which you will then develop in the main body through an analysis of the chosen topic and explain with specific evidence.

4. The structure of an analytical essay should be the following: introduction + body + conclusion + works cited.

5. All paragraphs have to be fully worked out and contain transitions. Each paragraph in the main body of your essay should include a topic sentence that introduces the issue to be discussed.

6. Avoid phrases “As far as I am concerned,” “To my mind” – the reader already understands that everything you write is your opinion, unless you attribute to another author.

7. Don’t include unnecessary long descriptions or plot summaries (in a case of novels or movies). You don’t need to describe the topic in details, your job is to remind the reader of the information that provides evidence for your argument.

8. Make certain your essay follows a logical structure and organization.

9. It is better to avoid the generalizations, such as “all people think,” “since the beginning of times,” etc.

10. To develop your argument, you’ll need to include at least one academic source.

11. You need to fully develop your voice and ideas. Avoid using too many quotes or summaries of other people’s works to not let the secondary sources dominate your essay.

12. Never use the quotations to substitute your own thoughts. Quote only those sentences that would lose their power if you paraphrase them.

13. Cite the sources according to the citation style specified in the requirements.

14. Leave a reader with a clear picture in his or her head.

15. Thoroughly revise your essay for clarity and coherence. Make sure it is error-free.

Preparing the analytical essay is difficult, but it can be one of the most rewarding forms of writing to master. So, practice, practice, practice!

How to Write a Historiography: Step-By-Step Guide

How to write a historiographyA historiography or historiographical essay is an examination of different ways in which historians have approached a particular topic. Unlike a research paper, it is not a study of a historical issue, instead, it is an analysis of how the interpretation of historical events by different scholars has changed over time.

A historiographical paper has to present a detailed overview of the main works on a topic and summarize and evaluate the arguments of each of those works. For the development of a clear and well-structured essay, you need to follow some crucial steps.

Choose a Topic

There are several useful strategies for coming up with a topic. The easiest way is to choose one of your assigned readings. Try to look for a topic that is really interesting for you – it will make the reading and the writing process much easier.

Alternatively, you may brainstorm a topic from scratch. If you take that approach, narrow down the topic to a specific area and focus on a particular historical event or person.

Once you have a topic, start looking for works on your subject. Take advantage of a mixture of various books, articles and publications. Generally, books tend to be more influential and relevant, especially for older topics. However, for modern issues, articles are more available.

Evaluate the Historians’ Viewpoints

Depending on the source you are using, there are some strategies you can apply to evaluate the scholars’ stances:

  • Books – You need to watch the structure of the book; how the author builds the argument and what he implies is the most important part.
  • Book reviews – The best way to find out the point of some work is to read a book review. This will provide you with an insight of how other historians respond to the author’s argument.
  • Periodicals – Look whether the article is often cited by other authors writing about the same subject.

Write Your Historiography

There are several possible ways to organize your historiographical paper:

  1. You can report writers in chronological order, monitoring changes over time.
  2. You may present the main schools of thought regarding your topic and discuss each one separately.
  3. If you need to prepare a large paper, you can address the works of the previous historians and describe how they relate to your own analysis.

All methods work for preparing a historiography.

Once you decide upon the organization, proceed with writing. You should begin your essay with a thesis that presents the issue and introduces your sources. In the main body of your paper, you have to develop the points of agreement or disagreement. You have to analyze why different historians have different opinions on the same subject. Is it due to the national affiliation, ideology or personal experience? These questions go to the heart of your historiographical essay. In a conclusion, briefly summarize the findings and access the credibility of the sources you’ve used.

Make sure your paper is consistent and well-structured. Revise it carefully to confirm that you’ve presented a cohesive picture of opinions and debate.

ACT Writing Tips: 5 Strategies to Raise Your Essay Score

ACT writing tipsThe written part of the ACT often strikes fear in the hearts of many students but there is no need to worry! A specific approach to the essay section and learning the main tips and tricks will help you prepare the most powerful piece of writing.

So, what do you need to accomplish in order to receive a high score? Here is all important information.

1. Write a Powerful Introduction and Conclusion

You need to know a little secret: your first and last paragraphs matter more than the middle. ACT graders need to read a lot of essays very quickly, so they pay more attention to the introduction and conclusion and simply scan the main part of your work. If the beginning and the end of your essay are well-written and logical, then most likely other paragraphs will be too. By reading these parts, the grader may tell with confidence what score you will get. However, it doesn’t mean that the middle part shouldn’t make sense. Just devote a bit more time to writing the introduction and conclusion of your essay.

2. Sell Your Examples with Details

A good essay should be persuasive. Interesting and specific details not only present the value of your point of view but also make an essay more interesting to read. Therefore, it is important to back up the statements you make with the fine points. You may even decide to support your position with a real-life story. It will only make your work more noticeable and memorable.

3. Organize Ideas in a Logical Manner

Your essay should be structured in a logical manner with distinctive paragraphs. Great ideas don’t make sense if they are not arranged well. Organization is important to effective writing because it makes easy for readers to follow your thoughts. To make your writing more consequent, use transitions between the paragraphs. Constructing effective paragraphs may be really challenging due to the effort involved in planning. However, the results can greatly improve your chances of getting the high score.

4. Use the Right Language

The use of language is very important, and voice, tone, word choice and grammar are always taken into account. Make sure to avoid slang, misspelling and grammatical mistakes. Your essay should be flawless and error-free. Also try to vary the sentence structure and use relatively sophisticated vocabulary. The ACT graders always pay much attention to the proper language use, so improve your mechanics of writing.

5. Carefully Review Your Essay

Once completed, read through your essay. Make sure it is on topic and persuasive enough. Check whether you don’t repeat the same ideas by using different words. Proofread the work for typos and mistakes as they may damage the most powerful essay.

The ACT test doesn’t have to be challenging or stressful. The tips mentioned above will give you the confidence and the ability to score well and bring you closer to the college of your choice.

How to Write an Abstract for Your Scientific Paper

How to write an abstract for a scientific paperAbstract is an essential part of every scientific project. It is a short, self-contained piece of writing that describes a larger work. An abstract includes the essential or the most important thoughts about the entire paper to allow the readers understand the point of your work.

Writing an abstract can be a bit intimidating, especially if you face the task for the first time. However, the following information will help you overcome the possible challenges with ease.

What Makes a Good Abstract

  • Well-developed, clear and concise paragraphs that can stand alone as a source of information.
  • Elements of a full-length paper, including purpose, focus, methods, results and conclusions.
  • Plain language understandable to a wide audience.
  • Material that doesn’t contain information not included in a paper.
  • No referencing.
  • Passive structures to describe the findings that focus on the issues rather than people.
  • Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content.
  • The same style of language found in the original.

Key Elements of Every Abstract

Your abstract should include 5 important sections:

1. Introduction

In your introduction, you should state the purpose of your paper, why you undertook the experiment and why a reader would be interested in the larger work. Something motivated you to explore this topic (an observation, question, frustration you experienced), so let the reader into your head.

2. A statement of the problem

You need to make a clear statement of the problem you’re going to solve in your paper.

3. Methodology

Specify the approaches or models used in your work. Be clear and concise and don’t include details about the materials used unless it greatly influenced the procedures.

4. Results

Indicate the results that lead to the conclusions you have drawn. Mention the contribution you’ve made and again, don’t give too many details.

5. Conclusions

Briefly describe the conclusions that you derived from your investigation.

Important Steps for Writing

Explaining a scientific paper in an abstract of 250 words can be challenging, but if you divide the writing process into logical steps, the task will be much more manageable.

  1. First of all, reread your paper attentively.
  2. Next read each part and specify the most important information in one or two sentences.
  3. Then read the sentences one more time to make sure that they cover the main points of your paper.
  4. Ensure that you have written something for every element of an abstract.
  5. Check the length of your abstract and reduce the words if necessary.
  6. Edit your abstract for flow and language.

Produce an abstract when you have finished your paper because by then you’ll have a clear picture of the findings and results. Make sure your abstract informs the audience of all important points of your scientific paper and remember that grammar, spelling, syntax, originality and neatness are important.

Ultimate Tips on Writing Lab Reports

writing lab reportsLab reports are an important part of all laboratory courses, including Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Natural Science, and usually a significant part of your grade. A lab report is your chance to show what you did in your experiment, what you learned and what the results meant.

When preparing a report, it is always important to be attentive to the requirements and guidelines as they may vary greatly. Some instructors require to include lab reports into the lab notebook, while others ask to prepare the separate reports. There may be some differences in format and writing style. However, there are universal guidelines for scientific writing, and you need to make sure that your report follows them.

Lab Report Essentials

1. Title

The title should be brief and describe the main point of your investigation. Aim for less than 10 words.

2. Abstract

In about 100 or 200 words, summarize the purpose of your lab report and major conclusions.

3. Introduction

Provide background information and explain the objectives of the lab. In other words, say why you did the experiment. Keep it short!

4. Methods and materials

List the materials and methods used but don’t overwhelm the reader with details.

5. Results

Summarize the important data from the experiment, describe what they mean.

6. Discussions

Compare expected results with actual results, explain the results in terms of the purpose, suggest how the they could be improved.

7. References

Include a reference list if it is required.

General Tips on Writing

In scientific writing, it is important to follow the specific rules to make sure that your report presents data and outcomes in a clear and persuasive way.

1. Be concise. You need to say as much as needed while using as few words as possible. A lab report is not an essay, it should be concise, straightforward and to the point. Avoid repetitions and unnecessary details.

2. Write in the third person. When you’re describing an experimental procedure, don’t use the words “I,” “we,” “my.” This may be a bit difficult to get used to, so pay special attention to the wording in your lab report.

3. Use correct verb tenses. It can be difficult to decide which tense (present or past )to use in your report. When describing the experiment, you need to use the past tense, as it has already been conducted. When you are talking about the equipment, theory or report that still exist, use the present tense.

4. Write about the real results. Resist the temptation to lie about the results in your lab report. Write about what really happened and not what should have happened. If something went wrong, it would be a great idea to suggest some ways to improve the work in future.

5. Don’t copy the lab manual. A manual can be a helpful guideline when you need to explain the purpose of your experiment. However, it is essential to use your own words when describing the results.

When the report is written, reread it, watching specially for lack of precision. Make sure you have enough time to edit and proofread your work thoroughly.

The Craziest Excuses to Skip Out on Your Writing Assignment

The craziest excusesSooner or later, a moment comes in the lives of everyone when we have to come up with a credible excuse for not finishing an assignment.

There are a number of possible approaches to this. You can try giving one of the same tired old excuses that every professor has heard a million times: the flu, family problems, your dog.

Or you can come up with something outrageous and simply hope that your creativity earns you some brownie points.

Once you’ve determined that an excuse is the best route, here are some to choose from.

1. “What assignment?” Depending on the instructor or the situation, playing dumb can actually work sometimes. You legitimately have no memory of being given an assignment; or maybe you do, but you thought it was due next week. Didn’t your teacher say it was due next week? You could have sworn he did.

2. “My computer crashed.” Anyone can relate to the experience of being derailed by technological problems. Your computer has a virus. Your flash drive broke. The Internet was down. It’s impossible to dispute that such things actually happen. Be wary of using this excuse with veteran teachers, though; they’ll just say you should have started the assignment sooner.

3. “I’ve had too much to do with my job.” Most instructors will take pity on students who have to work an extra job in addition to school, as long as you don’t use this excuse too often. Remember, your teachers will expect their classes to be your top priority.

4. “My essay was stolen.” Those gosh darn homework thieves are at it again! You KNOW that assignment was in your backpack, but someone must have taken it. Heck, maybe they even stole the entire backpack with your homework in it.

5. “I’ve been too sick to do it.” You’ve just barely been able to summon the energy to drag yourself out of bed and come to class. Your teacher should feel flattered that you made the effort to show up. You’ve certainly been in no condition to finish your writing assignment.

6. “I need your help to figure out how to do it.” This plays on your teacher’s natural desire to help you learn. She will be more than willing to give you a little extra time so that she can explain it to you better. Never mind that you could have emailed her or gone to her office hours before the assignment was actually due.

7. “My essay flew out the car window.” You can hand in a dirty, rumpled, illegible paper to make your story more convincing.

8. “I was abducted by aliens.” Hey, it happens. But once again, this wouldn’t be a problem if you hadn’t left it to the last minute.

9. The truth. Sometimes the truth is really your best bet. It’s likely you have a good reason that your professor will understand. As long as the truth isn’t that you chose to stay up all night partying with friends instead of doing your work.

With this repertoire, you should have no problem finding a great excuse to give your teacher. Feel free to embellish if you want! A little creativity keeps things more interesting.